acquired knowledge and skills. The No Child Left Behind Act and English language learners: Assessment and accountability issues. The waiver process requires a personal visit to the school by a child's legal guardian, and annual renewal of the waiver. Review of Research in Education,28, 27-46. Schools of their own: The education of Hispanos in New Mexico. States subsequently had to set targets for the percentage of students making progress on this test (amao 1) and the percentage of students classified as "proficient" on this test (amao 2). Developing minority language resources: The case of Spanish in California. These skills constitute the bridge which connects L1 with the learning of English (Ollia Mayfield, 1992).
The US has no official language, 2but because English is used for most official matters and the most commonly spoken language, it can be considered the official language in practice if not in law (Wikipedia). Language, violence, and Indian mis-education. Some of these programs have been in existence since the late 1960s, such as the Rough Rock Community School (Francis Reyner, 2002; McCarthy Dick; McCarty, 1994; McCarty, 1998; McCarty, 2003). Even when the written form of the L1 and English - such as the Chinese characters and the English alphabet - are distinctly different, the children are still able to apply the visual, linguistic, and cognitive strategies used in their L1 to reading and writing. Bilingual schools for a bicultural community: Miami's adaptation to the Cuban refugees. These children are also able to use their L1 for culturally appropriate activities in various contexts with different participants and topics. Click to view full-size The emphasis on monolingual (English-only) policies and assimilation has continued in the 21st century with the 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (the No Child Left Behind Act) and the passage of several state antibilingual education initiatives. Emergent literacy: Preschool, kindergarten, primary grades. The three ballot initiatives that passed are framed within homogenizing discourses that stress that monolingualism in English is a prerequisite for national unity, that the position of English as a national language is threatened (particularly by Spanish and that lack of English language proficiency.
Breaking the code: Colorado's defeat of the anti-bilingual education initiative (Amendment 31). Lawmakers have not chosen to declare English as their official language which can find themselves in a sticky situation. Many scholars have pointed out that nclb has instituted an unfair and punitive testing regime that has been particularly hard on ELLs. Bilingual Research Journal, 17(1 2 13-34.
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